COMPUTER GK- COMPUTER MEMORY
Computer memory is a generic term for all of the different types of data storage technology that a computer may use, including RAM, ROM, Computer memory is a physical electronic device that is used to store applications and data,
Types of Computer Memory: Primary and Secondary
Although many types of memory in a computer exist, the most basic distinction is between primary memory, often called system memory, and secondary memory, which is more commonly called storage.
The key difference between primary and secondary memory is speed of access.
- Primary memory includes ROM and RAM, and is located close to the CPU on the computer motherboard, enabling the CPU to read data from primary memory very quickly indeed. It is used to store data that the CPU needs imminently so that it does not have to wait for it to be delivered.
- Secondary memory by contrast, is usually physically located within a separate storage device, such as a hard disk drive or solid state drive (SSD), which is connected to the computer system either directly or over a network. The cost per gigabyte of secondary memory is much lower, but the read and write speeds are significantly slower.
Computer memory can be primarily classified into two types
Primary Memory (or)main memory(or)internal memory
Secondary Memory(or)non-volatile memory—permanent memory(or)external
1. Primary Memory is internal memory of the computer
2. These are semiconductor memories
3. Data is lost in case power is switched off
4. Faster than secondary memories
5. A computer cannot run without primary memory
6. Primary Memory can be divided into two types
7. They are RAM and ROM
RAM(Random Access Memory)
1. It is a volatile memory
2. It randomly select and use any location of the memory directly store and retrieve data
3. data will be erased once supply to the storage device is turned off
4. RAM is a Volatile Memory and stores the data on a temporary basis
5. Types of RAM: Static RAM and Dynamic and Fast to read and write
Used as system memory to store data (including program code) that the CPU needs to process imminently
Relatively cheap per megabyte stored compared to ROM, but relatively expensive compared to secondary memory
I. Static RAM: Is a semi conductor memory that uses Flip-Flop to store each bit
Static means periodically refressed
ii. Dynamic RAM: Is a Random Access memory that uses capacitor to store each bit dynamic indicates that the memory must be constantly refreshed
ROM(Read Only Memory)
1. ROM is non-volatile memory
2. ROM is a permanent form of storage
3. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only be
4. ROM stores the program that boots the computer
5. There are five basic ROM types
i. ROM – Read Only Memory.
ii. PROM – Programmable Read Only Memory.
iii. EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
iv. EEPROM – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
v. Flash EEPROM memory
1. This type of memory is also known as external memory or non-volatile.
2. It is slower than main memory.
3. These are used for storing data/Information permanently
4. These are magnetic and optical memories
5. Data is permanently stored even if power is switched off
6. Examples are Punching Devices
Optical Discs (CD/DVD)
Hard Disk Drives
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